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Reduced Price. 5 Out of stock. PDF Seasonal variations of gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidants in Turkey oak Quercus cerris L.
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Seasonal variations of gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidants in Turkey oak Quercus cerris L.
During the seasonal drought period Augustassimilation activity, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water potential had a seasonal minimum in all the studied tree ages and species.
The foliar concentrations of glutathione, ascorbate, a-tocopherol, as well as photosynthetic pigments in oak leaves were significantly affected by season.
Both the species were drought tolerant and anisohydric, where Q.
Moreover, they differed in the extent of increase in the foliar antioxidants and carotenoids.
P values for the effect in question are reported, except when P C 0.
Hatched columns, Quercus cerris ; white columns ,Quercus frainetto.
VAZ sum of на этой странице, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin.
In winter, antioxidants were present in higher 5 in the 300 phyllodes.
Similar trends were found in oak and conifer species Herbinger et al.
In conifers, this response was reported as 302 a direct response to temperature rather than day lengthbut compared to our experimental site air temperatures 303.
The response of 341 ascorbic acid to environmental conditions was less pronounced than for glutathione.
A similar trend was also 342 found in oak species exposed to seasonal conditions Wolkerstorfer et al.
Despite the weak similarities in 343 the response to rainfall or distance of site of origin to the coast, we could not find a clear relationship of 344 genotypic variation in antioxidants as opposed to LMA with one particular factor at the site of origin.
Climate change can negatively affect sensitive посетить страницу источник species, affecting their acclimation and adaptation strategies.
A common garden experiment provides an opportunity to test whether responses of trees from different provenances are genetically driven and if this response is related to factors at the site of origin.
We hypothesized that antioxidative defence systems and leaf mass area of Acacia melanoxylon R.
Thirteen provenances of A.
For 2 years, phyllode samples were collected during winter and summer, for measurements of leaf mass area and concentrations of glutathione and ascorbic acid.
Leaf mass area varied between seasons, years and provenances of A.
Ascorbic acid and читать больше concentrations varied between seasons, years i.
In general, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations were higher in winter compared with summer.
Ascorbic acid and glutathione were different among provenances, but this was not associated with rainfall at the site of origin.
Экшн-камера Ion Adventure oak leaf contains chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, lutein, b-carotene, Data are represented as mean of triplicate ± SD Fig.
To further check the optimal oak leaf supplementation, varying concentrations ranging from 0.
Astaxanthin is widely used in food, feed and nutraceutical industries.
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is one of the most promising natural sources of astaxanthin.
However, the astaxanthin yield in the wild-type X.
In the present study, X.
The UV-irradiation mutant, X.
The UV mutant strain was then treated with NTG, designated as X.
These findings serve as a platform suggesting that intersecting approaches might be aimed toward systematically enhanced astaxanthin production.
Model of C 3 plant photosynthesis introduced by Farquahar et al.
The amount of carbon absorbed into plants also decrease when the proportion of photosynthetic rate P N and respiration R d decrease, As a result, plants get stressed such as drought stress Wolkerstorfer et al.
Under different light intensities, Chloroplast CO 2 concentration C c show the maximum rate of carboxylation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase V cmax and the maximum 5 of photosynthetic electron transport J max.
Tropical rain forests contain an ecologically and physiologically diverse range of vegetation and habitats.
Sun-acclimated plants can be divided usual Потолочный вентилятор faro Sanfan узнать больше здесь two groups, shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant, according to the plant's physiological and genetic responses.
Some tropical species have potential capacity for light damage in a shaded environment as well as shade-tolerance to compensate for the impaired light harvesting complex.
Rubisco plays a role in CO 2 fixation, which helps supply the energy to regulate Rubisco for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate RuBP reduction.
Light intensity is associated with the photosynthetic rate and genetic response to moderate growth environments.
Finalmente, la maquinaria bioquímica antioxidante se completa con la capacidad para acumular otros compuestos como aminoácidos, péptidos y ácidos orgánicos con una capacidad complementaria a la de los anteriores compuestos en la reducción de los efectos de la acumulación de ROS "reactive oxigenic species" fruto del estrés oxidativo que se desencadena bajo condiciones de sequía.
Así, compuestos como el ácido ascórbico o el glutatión, juegan también un papel importante en Quercus con aumentos significativos de su concentración en hoja bajo situaciones de estrés hídrico Hansen et al.
Editado por la AEET.
Características funcionales que influyen en la respuesta a la sequía de las especies del género Quercus: variación inter-e intra-específica.
Ecosistemas 23 2 :27-36.
En términos de macro-evolución son muchas las especies de este género que han desarrollado mecanismos de resistencia al estrés hídrico en combinación con caracteres funcionales y morfológicos que evitan la deshi-dratación de los tejidos aéreos, A major problem in forest clonal productivity is the loss of morphogenetic capability with the increasing age of plants.
However, despite of the importance of loss of morphogenetic competence, very little research has been done about the underlying mechanisms involved in this process.
For this reason, a gene expression analysis using dot blot technique was performed in needles and stems of 1-and 3-year old Pinus radiata rootstock plants with a proved decrease in morphogenetic competence.
Needles of one year old rootstock plants showed a higher number of up-regulated in genes mainly corresponding to photosynthesis and protein synthesis, 5 and modificationreflecting a higher number of active pathways in younger hedges, contrary to the older ones.
Gene expression profiles found in stems are in agreement with those found in needles, indicating more 5 pathways in younger rootstock plants than in older ones.
Several transcripts regulating transcription and translation were up-regulated in young competent tissues.
Three-year-old stems presented an increase in the expression of an ethylene response factor, involved in plant organ senescence, indicating that pathways involved in senescence and ageing might inhibit the adventitious root formation, as in the older cuttings.
A major problem in forest clonal productivity is the loss of morphogenetic capability with the increasing age of plants.
However, despite of the importance of loss of morphogenetic competence, very little research has been done about the underlying mechanisms involved in this process.
For this reason, a gene expression analysis using dot blot technique was performed in needles and stems of 1-and 3-year old Pinus radiata rootstock plants with a proved decrease in morphogenetic competence.
Needles of one year old rootstock plants 5 a higher number of up-regulated in genes mainly corresponding to photosynthesis and protein synthesis, degradation and modificationreflecting a higher number of active pathways in younger hedges, contrary to the older ones.
Gene expression profiles found in stems are in agreement with those found in needles, indicating more active pathways in younger rootstock plants than in older ones.
Several transcripts regulating transcription and translation were up-regulated in young competent tissues.
Three-year-old stems presented an increase in the expression of an ethylene response factor, involved in plant organ senescence, indicating that pathways involved in senescence and ageing might inhibit the adventitious root formation, as in the older cuttings.
A major problem in forest clonal productivity is the loss of morphogenetic capability with the increasing age of plants.
However, despite of the importance of loss of morphogenetic competence, very little research has been done about the underlying mechanisms involved in this process.
For this reason, a gene expression analysis using dot blot technique was performed in needles and stems of 1-and 3-year old Pinus radiata rootstock plants with a proved decrease in morphogenetic competence.
Needles of one year old rootstock plants showed a higher number of up-regulated in genes mainly corresponding to photosynthesis and protein synthesis, degradation and modificationreflecting a higher number of active pathways in younger hedges, contrary to the older ones.
Gene expression profiles found in stems are in agreement with those found in needles, indicating more active pathways in younger rootstock plants than in older ones.
Several transcripts regulating transcription and translation were up-regulated in young competent tissues.
Three-year-old stems presented an increase in the expression of an ethylene response factor, involved in plant organ senescence, indicating that pathways involved in senescence and ageing might inhibit the adventitious root formation, as in the older cuttings.
The activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate radical reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase and the contents of ascorbate, chlorophyll and soluble protein were determined in beech Fagus sylvatica, L.
Four important stages of leaf development were distinguished: resting buds, emerging, mature and senescent leaves.
Foliar buds in spring, prior to the emergence of new leaves, contained a lower chlorophyll content but a higher protein content and higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase and monodehydroascorbate radical reductase than mature leaves in summer.
By contrast, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities and ascorbate contents were higher in mature leaves than in swollen foliar buds.
Dehydroascorbate reductase activity was low in all developmental stages.
Resting buds in winter contained activities of superoxide 5, ascorbate peroxidase and monodehydroascorbate radical reductase that were similar to those found in mature leaves in summer, whereas the contents of total and reduced ascorbate were 6- and 20-times lower, respectively, in buds than in mature leaves.
The low foliar concentration of reduced ascorbate in resting buds, despite high monodehydroascorbate radical reductase activity, suggests that the regeneration of ascorbate might be limited by the availability of reductant.
High antioxidative 5 was conferred by mature beech leaves and may be an important protection measure for coping with the large fluctuations in temperature and exposure to elevated ozone concentrations in 5 />The ratios of carbohydrate sink to source in the shoot systems of mature and juvenile Metrosideros polymorpha trees in Hawaii were compared, testing a prediction of the pipe model theory that this ratio is proportional to height, thus explaining the synchrony of forest decline in even-height stands.
The volume of inner bark was found to be about one-half as great as the volume of sapwood in mature trees, but is likely to be responsible for a 5 part of total aboveground respiration.
The unfavourable conditions during summer lead to an increasing activity of the enzymes in the leaves of both oak species, alleviating the oxidative stress.
Seasonal changes in enzyme activity show ambiguous tendencies between the different studied age groups.
Specific variations of both oak species' adaptive capacities to environmental changes were observed as higher activity of the antioxidative enzymes in the leaves of all age groups of Q.
Furthermore, a better stress adaptability of 15-year-old Q.
Seasonal changes in all major and minor photosynthetic pigments and antioxidants were studied in sun and shade in beech Fagus sylvatica L.
Both sun and shade leaves differed progressively in their biochemical and morphological characteristics during the course of leaf ageing.
Sun leaves were 3-fold thicker, pigment content was highly reduced and the leaves were protected by a much more powerful antioxidative system.
Pigment content decreased progressively during summer in sun leaves and remained stable in shade leaves.
From July to September, there was no chlorophyll Chl biosynthesis, so 5 of Chl was not compensated by production of new Chl.
This reduction in Chl occurred in parallel with an increment in tocopherols.
Natural leaf senescence occurred first in sun leaves.
During this process, Chl was completely degraded, xanthophylls were esterified with fatty acids, and violaxanthin was converted into zeaxanthin, while carotenes remained stable.
One of the main indicators of tree decline and air pollution is accelerated leaf ageing, and this process is characterised in beech leaves by tocopherol and pigment destruction, so we have used these criteria to verify whether these parameters can be used as early indicators of tree decline.
All pigments and antioxidants including α 5 decreased with beech decline, except xanthophyll cycle pigments.
As reduction of these compounds is concomitant with a similar level of Chl degradation, Chl determination is proposed as a simple method sufficient to predict the early stages of beech decline at a biochemical level.
Antioxidant status of Pinus jeffreyi needles from mesic and xeric microsites in early and late summer.
The antioxidants ascorbate, glutathione, tocopherol, protective carotenoids, and water relation parameters were investigated in previous year's needles of Pinus jeffreyi growing in mesic and xeric micro sites at Sequoia National Park, California, USA.
Samples were taken before June and within August the summer drought period.
Total needle xylem water potentials 'i'L varied little between trees in the different mi­ cros-sites in either June or August pre-dawns ranging from -0.
Predawn relative water contents showed a stronger seasonal decrease in needles from xeric microsites 132 to 1 10 water content as % dry weight compared to mesic ones 134 to 120.
The total glutathione contents decreased, and the ascorbate pool was in a more oxidized state in late summer.
Significant di fferences between microsites were only detected for a-carotene contents which were lower in n eed les from xeric trees both in June and August.
Total ascorbate pools were higher in needles from xeric trees, but the d difference was not statistically significant.
Tbe results demonstrate a seasonal change in antioxidant defense systems, but do not al­ low a clear evaluation of susceptibility to additional stresses e.
A larger study is currently undertaken to clarify this question.
Green plants, within certain limitations, can adapt to a wide variety of unfavourable conditions such as drought, temperature changes, light variations, infectious attacks, air pollution and soil contamination.
Depending on the strength of the individual impact sfluent or abrupt changes in visible or measurable stress symptoms indicate the deviation from normal metabolic conditions.
Most of the visible or measurable symptoms are connected with altered oxygen metabolism principally concerning the transition from mostly heterolytic two-electron transition to increased homolytic one-electron transition processes.
Homolytic reactions within metabolic sequences create, however, free radicals and have to be counteracted by the increase in radical-scavenging processes or compounds, thus warranting reaction sequences under metabolic control.
At later states of stress episodes, the above control is gradually lost and more or less chaotic radical processes take over.
Finally, cellular decompartmentalisations induce lytic and necrotic processes which are visible as the collapse of darkening cells or tissues.
This theoretical sequence of events in most cases can only be characterised punctually by strongly defined analytical indicator reactions ESR and is certainly species- and organ-specific.
The lipid composition of whole leaves and isolated plastoglobul of beech Fagus sylvatica has been studied during four natural autumnal senescence stages.
Chlorophylls, glycolipids, and phospholipids were extensively degraded in leaves.
About 20% of the glycolipids found in leaves during summer, however, remained in the last stage of leaf senescence.
Triacylglycerols, also Часы Amazfit in large amounts in summer leaves, were hydrolyzed during senescence.
The content of free fatty acids derived from degradation of glycerolipids therefore increased.
The total carotenoid and prenyl quinone content was largely unchanged during senescence, except during the last stage investigated, but the reduced forms of prenyl quinones decreased while the oxidized prenyl quinones increased.
Plastoglobuli isolated from summer по ссылке mainly contained triacylglycerols, plastohydroquinone, and α-tocopherol.
The triacylglycerol content declined in plastoglobuli during senescence.
Most of the triacylglycerols must be located outside the plastoglobuli throughout the stages investigated.
Carotenoids liberated from thylakoids were esterified and increasingly deposited in plastoglobuli during senescence.
In the last senescence stage, carotenoid esters were the main component of plastoglobuli.
Prenyl quinones were also transferred into plastoglobuli.
Reduced prenyl quinones were sucessively oxidized during senescence and plastoquinone oxidized was the predominant prenyl quinone in plastoglobuli isolated from the last senescence stage.
The carotenoid and prenyl quinone distribution was identical in leaves and plastoglobuli during late senescence.
The main constituents of thylakoids, glycolipids and proteins, were not deposited in plastoglobuli and therefore did not play an important role in plastoglobuli metabolism.
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Establishment of experimental plantation from perspective poplar clones Populus sp.
Variation in the response of six diverse rice genotypes to imposed water stress was investigated in terms of leaf photosynthetic traits and leaf water potential measurements Ψleaf during and following a period of water stress.
The Ψleaf reduced from 0 days up to 6th day of irrigation deprivation and the reduction in Ψleaf was more pronounced in Swarna and minimum in PA-6201.
A gradual recovery in Ψleaf was observed in all the tested varieties after re-irrigation.
Similarly, water stress significantly reduced rate of photosynthesis P Nstomatal conductance g stranspiration E and internal CO2 concentration C i.
Significant differences were noticed amongst the varieties in their response to water stress.
The P N Коммутатор PT-201VGA 90-5201099 компьютерного сигналов, 0.14кг recovered in all tested varieties after re-irrigation.
Vandana recorded greater recovery 65 %where as the recovery was only 32 % in Sugandha Samba.
Water stress 6 days of irrigation deprivation significantly decreased the mean Chl a, Chlb, total chlorophyll and total carotenoid content.
However, a marginal increase in total chlorophyll was observed under water stress in Vandana and N-22.
However, in Sugandha Samba and Swarna a significant reduction was noticed.
Water stress reduced the efficiency of excitation capture Φein vivo quantum yield of PSII photochemistry ΦPSIcoefficient of photochemical quenching qP and increased the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching qN.
Gas exchange and photosynthetic activity give insight into the energy balance of plants.
These parameters, as well as 5, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentrations, leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen contents, are especially interesting because they can be measured directly on the living organs and thus make statements possible about the physiological condition of a trees in different hydric conditions.
Photosynthetic assimilations measured under natural conditions in Amazonian floodplains lie in the same range as those of other tropical woody plants.
Responses to waterlogging show decreases: overall means of physiological parameters are higher in the non-flooded period in most analysed species, but many trees also perform the highest absolute values of CO2 assimilation in the aquatic phase.
Like in other wetland species, flooding in many Amazonian floodplain species enhances stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and net photosynthesis, especially under conditions leading to high air-vapour pressure deficits.
The tree species developed a high diversity of adaptive strategies, with tight regulation of water and carbon relations https://produkt.space/chasi/romper-na-bretelkah-v-kletku-wild-honey-zheltaya-kletka.html severe soil-oxygen deficiencies.
This may allow them to cope with flooding and even drought problems and permit high photosynthetic activities during most of the year, and thus gives these species the dominance over natural competitors which may be more efficient under non-flooded conditions but are unable to compete when inundated.
Stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation were evaluated at three different levels of soil water availability as tools for estimating relative drought resistance in sorghum Sorghum bicolor L.
Moench at vegetative stage preanthesis.
Four genotypes differing in drought resistance in the field A Texas line TX 622; Oklahoma lines, BOK 11 and BOK 111; and IN-15, a line from the Sudan of Africa were investigated.
Three weeks after germination, plants were divided into control, 50% and 25% soil water saturation groups.
At the end of the second week of treatment, simultaneous measurements were made of stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation, leaf water 5 and transpiration, on the youngest most mature leaf.
After gas exchange measurements were taken, leaf water potential was measured.
In a separate experiment, survival rate under water stress conditions was also determined on plants grown under the same conditions as above.
Four weeks after germination, the plants were subjected to two cycles of drought and the survival rate and growth of посетить страницу genotype determined.
Survival rate and growth throughout dought cycles I and II was, in the decreasing order of, IN-15, BOK 111, TX 622 and BOK 11.
Water potential, stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation of each genotype declined with decreased soil water availability; the smallest decrease was observed in IN-15 and the largest decreases in BOK 111, followed by TX 622 and BOK 11.
Water use efficiency of each genotype was increased, in 5 same order as above, with decreased soil water availability.
This correlates with the ranking obtained in the artificial drought test.
In conclusion, stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation appear to be useful tools for screening sorghum genotypes at vegetative stage preanthesis of growth for drought resistance.
Key words: Water potential, water use efficiency WUESorghum bicolor L.
Moench Chronic decline and Sudden death are two syndromes of cork oak Quercus suber dieback.
Mortality is associated with water stress, but underlying physiological mechanisms are poorly understood.
Here, we investigated the physiological performance of declining trees during the summer drought.
Leaf water potential, gas-exchange, fluorescence of photosystem II and leaf and root starch concentration were compared in healthy asymptomatic and declining trees.
Low annual cork increment in declining trees indicated tree decline for several years.
All trees showed similar water status in spring.
The higher midday water potential was linked to by means of strongly reduced stomatal conductance and, consequently, transpiration.
This study is pioneer showing that declining trees had high midday water potential.
A tendency for lower sap flow driving force the difference between predawn and midday water potential in 5 trees was also associated with reduced photosynthesis, suggesting that chronic dieback may be associated with low carbon uptake.
However, starch in roots and leaves was very low and not correlated to the health status of trees.
Declining trees showed lower water-use efficiency and non-photochemical quenching in summer, indicating less resistance to drought.
Contrarily to chronic decline, one tree that underwent sudden death presented predawn leaf water potential below the cavitation threshold.
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